The Tao of the penalty shootout

June 22, 2012
By Roger Bennett

For human drama, few sporting experiences can beat an international penalty shootout. It is, in short, a high-stakes affair in which soccer meets Russian Roulette and plays out before a global audience of 290 million who watch on breathlessly as players participate under conditions that can never be simulated and prepared for in training. The interplay between kickers and goalkeepers has inspired a rich field of academic study among psychologists, statisticians and game theorists. Their ...

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